Viedenský profesor Duchkowitsch: Médiá ovplyvňujú ekonomické záujmy ich vlastníkov viac než ideológie

O súčasných aj historických témach žurnalistického výskumu hovoril profesor Viedenskej univerzity Wolfgang Duchkowitsch na prednáške v utorok 13. apríla. Podujatie, ktoré pre študentov prvého ročníka žurnalistiky pravidelne organizuje Katedra žurnalistiky Filozofickej fakulty Univerzity Komenského v Bratislave, sa presunulo do online prostredia. W. Duchkovitsch sa prednášky zúčastnil na pozvanie profesorky Danuše Serafínovej.

Dlhoročný akademik Inštitútu pre žurnalistiku a komunikačné vedy (Institut für Publizistik- und Kommunikationswissenschaft) Fakulty sociálnych vied predstavil súčasné trendy výskumu médií v Rakúsku, ako aj ich historické pozadie. „Empirický výskum médií s dôrazom na obsahovú analýzu, ako ho poznáme dnes, sa presadil v 80. rokoch minulého storočia. Dovtedy práca výskumníkov spočívala skôr v opisnom prístupe k archívnym dokumentom,“ vysvetlil.

Túto zmenu ilustroval na štúdiách, ktoré vznikli v 90. rokoch a venovali sa analýze národnosocialistickej tlače v Rakúsku pred druhou svetovou vojnou a počas nej. „Presadilo sa chápanie, že médiá nielen odzrkadľujú realitu, ale ju aj vytvárajú. Napríklad nápis „Heil Hitler“ na zápalkových škatuľkách znamenal v roku 1938 v Rakúsku výrazný propagandistický prvok, pretože bežný Rakúšan v tom čase držal zápalky v ruke niekoľkokrát denne,“ ozrejmil profesor.

„V niekoľkých prípadoch periodiká priznali, že vo vzťahu k niektorým inzerentom si nemôžu dovoliť veľmi ich kritizovať.“

Zo súčasných výskumných prác poukázal W. Duchkowitsch na štúdie o anonymite v diskusiách pod článkami internetových spravodajských portálov. Takisto spomenul aj problematiku prenášania overených rubrík z tlačených periodík na internet: „Online prostredie zvyčajne zabezpečí kvantitatívny nárast počtu novinárskych prejavov, no zároveň sa ukazuje, že klesá čítanosť jednotlivých článkov. Viacerým tradičným rubrikám preto hrozí zánik.“

V diskusii so študentmi odpovedal profesor najmä na otázky týkajúce sa vplyvu záujmových skupín na obsah rakúskych médií. Podľa neho sú dôsledky najmä ekonomické a súvisia aj so znižovaním počtu redaktorov a tlaku na ich výkon: „V niekoľkých prípadoch periodiká priznali, že vo vzťahu k niektorým inzerentom si nemôžu dovoliť veľmi ich kritizovať.“ Dodal, že dnes už stranícka a ideologická žurnalistika nehrá v Rakúsku veľkú úlohu. „V prvom rade ide totiž o ekonomické záujmy vlastníkov a inzerentov. Ak nejaký ideologický vplyv existuje, je nepriamy,“ uviedol.

Autor: Ján Barčiak
Foto: autor

Ján Barčiak

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